Infertility in women refers to those factors and problems that are related to women in infertility and can have different reasons such as:
Causes of infertility in women
Age-related changes, such as reduced ovarian reserve, may lead to increased infertility. Fertility in women begins to decline after the age of 27, and the rate of decline in fertility accelerates after the age of 35. In relation to ovarian reserve in terms of ovulation, a woman has 12% of her ovarian reserve at the age of 30, and this rate decreases to 3% at the age of 40.
- Ovarian dysfunction
The most common cause of female infertility is ovarian dysfunction. This condition may be due to a defect in the function of the hypothalamus and, as a result, a disorder in the stimulation of the pituitary gland. Stress, trauma, changes in body weight, anorexia or eating disorders, and excessive exercise may be factors in the development of ovulation dysfunction. Women with such problems do not produce enough LH and FSH to stimulate follicle maturation in the ovaries. Endocrine factors (including thyroid disease, diabetes, hyperprolactinemia, overproduction of adrenal androgen) and liver disease impair hypothalamic or pituitary function, which may result in follicle growth, to prevent ovulation, or survival of the corpus callosum. These endocrine disorders and imbalances need to be corrected and controlled to restore pregnancy.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
It is a disorder that occurs in 5 to 10% of the female population. Insulin resistance appears to lead to hyperinsulinemia, which stimulates the ovaries to produce more androgens, causing the PCOS syndrome. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may have all or some of the following symptoms: Obesity, hyperprolactinemia, ovarian cysts, menstrual irregularities, symptoms of hyper- hyper- androgenism (acne, male pattern baldness, hypermenorrhea), hypercholesterolemia, increased LH / FSH ratio and infertility. Women who are overweight distributed in the Waist area have exaggerated symptoms and some degree of PCOS symptoms. Pregnant women with PCOS are also at greater risk for miscarriage and pregnancy problems.
- Tubular / endometrial causes
Pelvic inflammatory disease may also play a role in infertility by damaging the tubes and endometrial wall. Endometriosis is a condition characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue and may have an effect on the mechanical aspects of ovulation, oocyte harvest, transfer by fallopian tube, and follow-up of fertilized egg implantation.
- Causes of Cervix
Cervical infertility can be caused by changes in the quality and quantity of mucus that are necessary for sperm to pass into the uterus. Infections such as chlamydia may affect the quality of mucus. Also, surgical procedures such as laser erosion or cryotherapy may damage the mucus-secreting glands in the cervix.
- Sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually transmitted infections are a major cause of infertility. Sexually transmitted infections often have fewer symptoms, leading to a loss of time for preventative and curative measures.
- Luteal phase defects
Some women’s inability to maintain the early stages of pregnancy may be due to a defect in the luteal phase associated with inadequate and insufficient progesterone.
Tobacco use is harmful to the ovaries, and the extent of the damage depends on the severity and duration of the person’s smoking. Nicotine and other chemicals that interfere with the body’s ability to produce estrogen (a hormone involved in regulating follicle formation and ovulation) cause egg cells to be prone to genetic abnormalities. Of course, some injuries are unavoidable, but quitting smoking can prevent further injuries.
- Body weight and eating disorders
In addition to the primary sexual organs, fat cells produce estrogen. Excess body fat causes overproduction of androgens, which can cause the body to react and prevent pregnancy. On the other hand, low body fat also leads to insufficient estrogen production and impaired menstrual cycle. In general, both underweight and overweight women have irregular cycles that do not ovulate or are insufficient.